Schizophrenia Research Paper Order
Fraudulent Student Case [Katallia W., a Student from Florida. Scam Warning for Online Merchants]:
XXXX NW 91st Ave
Coral Springs, FL 33071
Phone: (954) x03-1XXX
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On April 10, 2011, Katallia W. from Florida ordered an example research paper on schizophrenia. Below are the instructions she provided, her comments after she received the completed paper, and the paper itself. Her comments clearly suggest that she submitted the paper as her own, which is a serious illegal activity in all American academic institutions. She doesn't care about academic integrity at all. On top of that, she did a chargeback on the completed paper (meaning that she has stolen from her contracted writer by refusing to pay for the example research).
My investigation and belief suggest that she is intentionally defrauding merchants by using an American Express card which makes it pretty easy for card holders to do an unauthorized chargeback. By ordering intangible products, credit card fraud is even easier to do and Katallia W. is probably well aware of that. Who knows how many merchants she has already scammed this way...
If you know Katallia W. and the university she is/was attending to (or her current or former employer), please contact me immediately so that it is possible to prove that she is a dishonest student and the person who is defrauding online merchants by ordering products or services and not paying for them.
Paper subject: Schizophrenia
Class name: Perspectives in Health
Paper type: Research Paper
Required pages: 4
Required sources: 4
Citation style: APA
Deadline: Apr 10, 2011
Instructions: Type a double-spaced four page summary of the health issue assigned which provides an overview, definition, statistics, and conclusion (what, when, how, why, who, where, prevention, treatment if applicable). The paper should be submitted using Microsoft Word and written using APA style, be free of spelling and grammatical errors. Include the reference cite/s used for your background research in the body of the paper as well as the reference page. Remember only 6 lines of direct quotations are allowed. More than 6 lines will result in a grade of zero.
Overview- Excellent introduction paragraph that flows into next paragraph(s) of an overview of the health topic, also includes definition(s). Should be about one page with references correctly cited.
Rationale and demographics- Excellent description of statistics (include statistics and demographics) of health issue. Section should be at least one to two pages with references correctly cited in section.
Prevention and treatment- Excellent description of prevention and treatment of health issue. Section should be at least one to two pages with references correctly cited in section.
Conclusion- Excellent one paragraph summary of intervention.
Reference page- Reference page is correctly done in APA format.
KATALLIA W. WROTE:
Thank you for your assistance with this assignment. I do however have an
> issue. I am only allowed six lines of direct quotes and the paper has
> more. There are also areas in the paper that "appear" word for word from
> sources that were't referenced, and I will be penalized for plagarism.
> papers are submitted through safeassign that will detect "plagarism" and I
> will be penalized.
> Hello, My concerns were addressed, but I was advised that a revised paper would be submitted later today.
Schizophrenia: An Overview of a Severe Mental Illness
Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and disabling mental disorder, affecting approximately one percent of the world's adult population. Generally speaking, schizophrenia victims experience stimuli (e.g., 'hearing voices') unfelt by those not afflicted with the disorder. At times schizophrenics may be extremely agitated, at other times they may spend hours without talking or moving. Most schizophrenics also suffer from 'executive' deficit: they find it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to formulate and carry out those activities associated with ordinary daily living. Expressions of schizophrenia symptoms not only vary among afflicted individuals, they often vary with individuals over the course of time [Understanding schizophrenia].
According to NIMH (2009), schizophrenia symptoms fall into three broad categories:
Positive: These are psychotic behaviors not seen in healthy people. They include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders (dysfunctional ways of thinking), and movement disorders.
Negative: These are disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors. They include 'flat effect' (motionless face or monotonic voice during conversation), taking no pleasure in daily life, inability to sustain a course of action, and manifesting difficulty in conducting conversation.
Cognitive: These include problems with attention, certain types of memory, and executive functions facilitating planning and organization.
One of the more devastating manifestations of the schizophrenia is the auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), in which the patient 'hears' non-existent external voices. A study by Bentaleb et al. (January 2002), relying on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), examined a patient who experienced continuous AVH that, nonetheless, disappeared when she heard loud external speech (a rare case). "[Her] brain activity [was measured] in the temporal and inferior frontal regions during the AVHs and while she was listening to external speech… AVHs were associated with increased metabolic activity in the left primary auditory cortex and the right middle temporal gyrus  ." The researchers hypothesized "defective internal monitoring and aberrant activation," behavior patterns that are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
Determining the physiological foundations of negative symptom schizophrenia is considerably more difficult than comparable determinations among those patients manifesting overt symptoms. However a study reported in Neuro-psychiatry Review (Begany, August 2004) established that NMDA receptor hypo-function-specifically reduced activity of GCP II, a glutamate enzyme-was associated with reduced functioning "in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and temporal cortex of patients with schizophrenia compared with controls." Otherwise healthy volunteers received infusions of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist). The test subjects reproduced both positive and negative schizophrenia symptoms (q.v., supra).
While it is highly tentative, it would appear from the foregoing that negative symptom schizophrenia is more closely associated with neurotransmitter dysfunction, while the disorder's positive symptom counterpart implicates structural pathway malfunction to a more significant extent.
Implicated genetic factors: NIMH (2009) reports persons who inherit two copies of val coding for COMT, a brain chemical that breaks down dopamine, "have a slightly higher risk of schizophrenia. And Begany (2004) reports that a translocation of the GCP II gene that codes for the enzyme that degrades the NMDA receptor agonist D-serine indicates increased risk of the disease. These two, however, may be among many. A report published by the Office of the Surgeon General (2009) notes that recent research points to a multiplicity of mutations that are implicated in schizophrenia onset and, further, that "these genetic differences involve hundreds of different genes and probably disrupt brain development."
According to Asher (2011), a recent NIH-funded study has determined that victims of schizophrenia "are 14 more times more likely to have multiple copies of a gene on chromosome 7 than those in a control group." According to experts, the gene, VIPR2, codes for VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide), the latter being chemical that plays a role in brain development. This development is particularly important because the disease victims display very similar characteristics. This, in turn, may point to prospective treatment regimes.
Environmental factors: The Surgeon General's schizophrenia report (2009) notes that "there is consistent evidence that prenatal stressors are associated with increased risk of the child developing schizophrenia in adulthood, although the mechanisms for these associations are unexplained. There is a body of statistically significant anecdotal evidence that unfavorable environmental conditions or events in utero (primarily during the fourth and fifth months of pregnancy) may cause a neurological insult to the developing fetus. Children born to women pregnant during the 1944 Dutch famine were statistically more likely to develop schizophrenia. Studies conducted in Finland determined that the offspring of women who, during pregnancy, learned of the deaths of husbands during the 1939-1940 Winter War were considerably more susceptible to schizophrenia when compared with mothers who learned of such deaths after pregnancy. (Both of these studies point to abnormal conditions or events as triggering elements, perhaps ones that aggravated preexisting, albeit only latent, conditions. If so, this would accord with the Surgeon General's thinking on a prospective connection, described supra.)
At present there is no cure for schizophrenia. (In a very few instances, disease symptoms have completely receded for indefinite periods. These outcomes, however interesting they may be-and, as a corollary, however much they may contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of the disease-remain idiopathic.) There are, however, a number of treatment regimes, resulting in varying shades of success.
A number of anti-psychotic drugs-commonly called 'atypical'-were developed during the 1990s. These include such commonly prescribed medicines as Olanzapine (Seroquel) and Aripiprazole (Abilify). While these have fewer unfavorable side-effects, residual side-effects can be severe, even life-threatening, to wit, major weight gain and diabetes onset. In addition, patients prescribed atypical drugs often suffer from muscle rigidity, spasms, uncontrollable tremors (tardive dyskinesia).
However beneficial these pharmacological regimes may be in containing the symptoms of schizophrenia, optimum treatment regimes include interventions and recuperative efforts that are more social than specifically medical. These include family psychosocial interventions and vocational rehabilitation (Surgeon General, 2009). While most schizophrenics cannot function independently (if only because of those deficits that militate against executive functioning), many can lead quasi-independent lives if certain services-e.g., assisted-living housing, transportation, ongoing medical care-are made available (Surgeon General, 2009).
Perhaps at some future date a genuine cure for schizophrenia will become available. Given the evident spectrum of symptoms and the variety of contributing genetic factors, it may well prove to be the case that such an outcome will be incremental. (Indeed, it may actually be the case that schizophrenia is actually a congeries of closely related ailments, ones manifesting similar symptoms and responding in similar fashion to selected treatment regimes.) Disease containment presents a number of practical problems.
The very nature of the disease militates against assured treatment. Victims, as noted supra, are deficient in executive functioning. They not only do not plan very well (something essential to maintaining a treatment regime), many victims during periods of extreme disease expression, cannot plan at all. In order to maintain treatment under such circumstances, some external support must be made available. If the victim has the support of a loving family or, for that matter, a number of dedicated friends willing to make the effort, this support component requirement may be met.
But all too often, the symptoms of schizophrenia have the effect of breaking down family relationships and alienating friends. In so many words, the disease 'defends' itself against treatment. Overcoming this hurdle presents a spectrum of problems that implicate social services, the legitimacy of enforced treatment and, ultimately, the law and the courts. It is not a crime to be ill. But it may be a crime to commit certain acts while ill. All of these factors are at work in efforts to treat the victims of schizophrenia. But their application raises issues that, like the disease, resist ready resolution.
Works consulted in the preparation of this report:
Asher, J (2011, February 26), People with schizophrenia more likely to have multiple copies of a gene on chromosome 7, Medical News Today.
Begany, T. (August 2004), Emerging schizophrenia treatments aim to enhance NMDA receptor function, Neuropsychiatry review, 5(6)
Bentaleb, L. A. et al., Cerebral activity associated with auditory verbal hallucinations: a functional magnetic resonance imaging case study, Brief report, Review of psychiatry and neuroscience, 27(2), pp. 100 et seq.
Gur, R. E. (2000), Functional brain imaging studies in schizophrenia, American college of neuropsychopharmacology: the fifth generation of progress
Understanding schizophrenia (2003, March), Astra Zeneca
U.S., NIH/NIMH (2009), Schizophrenia, NIH Publication 09-3517.
U.S., Office of the Surgeon General (1999), Etiology of Schizophrenia, Mental Health: A report of the Surgeon General [chapter 4].
Disclaimer: CustomWritten attempts to ensure Information is accurate. However, Information is provided "AS IS" and on an "AS AVAILABLE" basis and may not be accurate or up to date. Alleged violators are considered not guilty until proven otherwise.
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